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  文章称,只有最丰富的想象力才可能假设,花这么多钱而没有回报的希望。

魏天谌美国距离史上最大税改有多远美国最富阶层的重要组成部分,将从本次税改中受益匪浅。

酒店管理  Executivesummary执行摘要  Asanimportantmanagementmethod,revenuemanagementhasreceivedextensiveattentionininternationalhotelindustry.Revenuemanagementshouldnotonlyimproveefficiency,butalsocreatehotelrevenuedirectly.Andrevenuemanagementisoneofthemostusefulmanagementtoolsthatcanbringdirectbenefitstothehotelindustry.Thisresearchpapermainlydiscussfromthefollowingaspectsasthedefinitionofrevenuemanagement,thescientificwaystousehotelrevenuemanagementsystemandthehotelindustryimplementsrevenuemanagementstrategies,especiallysalesandmarketingtechniques.Thentaketheshangri-lahotelinSydneyforexample,itaimstoanalyzewithoutanyincreasecosthowhotelrevenuemanagementsystemcanmakerapidresponseandappropriatepricesegmentationtomakehighestprofit.Throughthepracticalapplicationoftherevenuemanagementsystemandscientificmarketdemandforecastingandpricingstrategy,itcanhelphotelsoptimizetheallocationofexistingresourcestomaximizerevenue.Revenuemanagementisascientificmanagementstrategy,whichaimstosellproductsatdifferentpricestodifferentcustomersinatimelymannersoastomaximizethehotelrevenue.  Tableofcontents  1.Background背景  Becausetherevenuemanagementsystemhashugeimpactsonthecompany’sdecision-makingandimproveprofits.Manyoftheworld'sleadinghotelgroups,especiallythehotelgroupsinEurope,theUnitedStatesandAustralia,haveattachedgreatimportancetothemanagementofrevenue.Theyhaveestablishedaspecialrevenuemanagementdepartmentandconfiguredacomputersystemthatcanperformalotofdataanalysisandreal-timeoptimization.Theshangri-lahotelmanagementcompanyisoneofthefirstcompaniesintheworldtointroducerevenuemanagementintothehotelindustry,Itisalsothemostsuccessfuluserandbeneficiaryofrevenuemanagement.Earlyon,shangri-laimplementedrevenuemanagementandaccumulatedyearsofexperienceandwealth,leadingthehotelindustryandbecomingoneofthelargestandmostsuccessfulhotelgroupsintheworld.Itisworthnotingthatshangri-lahotelmanagementisnotonlyconcernedwithrevenuemanagement,andithasinvestedhugefundsindevelopingitsownrevenuemanagementsystemfortheirgrouphotels.Likeshangri-la,therearealsoothersuccessfulhotelswhichhavealsoputtherevenuemanagementintheimportantposition,suchasintercontinental,accor,hyatt,kempinski,fourseasons,thelangham,Annatara,etc.,  2.Definitionofrevenuemanagement收益管理的定义  RevenueManagementisalsocalledasyieldmanagementisanincomemanagementfornon-storageassets,whichisadynamicpricingstrategyforhigherincome.Thistheorycombinesthetheoreticalknowledgeofmicroeconomics,enterprisemanagementandstatisticaloperation,andcanaccuratelypredictthefuturedemandandsupplytrendofproducts,andcontinuouslyincreasetheeconomicbenefitsofenterprises.Kimes(1989)combinedmarketingtheorymentioned4Rtheory,thatisintherighttimeandplace,toprovidecorrectproductsorservicestothecorrectcustomersattherightprice,toachievethemaximizationgoalofenterpriseincomeunderresourceconstraint.The4Rtheoryreflectsthemarket,operationmechanismandenterprisegoalofrevenuemanagement,whichisacomprehensiveandaccurateinterpretationofrevenuemanagement.Hotelrevenuemanagementreferstothemostrapidresponseandthemostappropriatepricebreakdownwithoutincreasingthecostoftheenterprise,whichmakethehotelsellasmanyroomsaspossibleatthehighestpossiblepriceperdayandmaximizehotelrevenue.In1983,ScottonD.Schadefirstappliedrevenuemanagementsystemtothehospitalityindustry,andthentheshangri-lahotelin1989introduceda"doublebreakfastplan"thattheweekendhousepricesfelltohalf,designedtoappealtolocalresidentsinthehotelfortheweekend,andsuccessfullyimprovedthehoteloccupancyandrevenue.  3.Thecombinationoftheoryandpracticeofhotelrevenuemanagementsystem酒店收益管理系统的理论与实践相结合  3.1Thecombinationoftheoryandpractice  (1)Intherapidlychangingmarket,thesystemandscientificmethodareusedtoaccuratelypredictthedemandmodelofthemarket,analyzethecustomer'sconsumptionbehaviorandmakethemarketsegmentationreasonably.  (2)Adjustpricingstrategyaccordingtomarketsegmentation.  (3)Allocatelimitedproductresourcestoeachsegmentofthemarketinanoptimalmanner,thatistosetdifferentpricesandsellgoodsforeachtypeofcustomerinthemosteffectivewayandconstantlyadjustaccordingtomarketchanges.  (4)Toprovidedecisionsupportformarketingandoperation,including:pricingstrategy,scheduling,productdevelopment,advertising,salesandmarketing,personnelandreasonablearrangement.  3.2Thetheoryappliedinthehotelindustry  Asfarasthehotelindustryisconcerned,theshangri-lahotelinSydneyisoneofthefive-starhotelsinAustralia.Itschairmanandchiefexecutive,billmarriott,oncesaid:"revenuemanagementhasnotonlyincreasedthebenefitsofmillionsofdollarsforus,butalsoeducationushowtomanagemoreeffectively."Andaccordingtothereport,sincetherevenuemanagementsystemwasestablished,bookingsattheshangri-lahotelinSydneyhaverisenby20%andRevenuemanagementcanincreasehotelturnoverby5%to15%.Theshangri-lahotelinSydneyhascreatedanunprecedentedrevenuerecord,andtherehasbeenasignificantincreaseincommunicationbetweensalesandbookings.Inrecentyears,theworld'sotherluxuryhotelssuchasholidayhotel,theHiltonHotel,thehyatthotelgroupalsohavemodeledonthepatternoftheshangri-lahotel,todeveloptheirownrevenuemanagementsystem.  4.Characteristicsofhotelrevenuemanagementandtheapplicationofrevenuemanagementinluxuryhotel酒店收入管理的特点及收益管理在豪华酒店中的应用  4.1Analysistheoperationcharacteristicsofluxuryhotelgroup  (1)Thehotelindustryisatypicalservicesectorthatcan'tuseinventoryasabufferagainstdemandfluctuations.  (2)Themarketcanbesubdivided.Marketsegmentationisthebasisofbusinessdifferentiationpricingandthewaytocarryoutrevenuemanagement,besidesluxuryhotelgroupenterprisesarealsofacingthemarketsegmentation.  (3)Hotelproductsorserviceshaveastrongtimeliness.Ifthehotelroomisnotcheckedinoneday,theroomwillhavezeroprofitontheday.  (4)Hotelroomscanbebookedinadvancethroughreservationsystem.  (5)Hotelguests'demandforroomsfluctuateandrandomnessovertime.  (6)Hotelfixedassetinvestmentishuge,dailymaintenancecostishigher.Thevariablecostsofrelativelyhighfixedcostsmaybejustanightofutilities,disposablesupplies,andthecleaningcostsofthecloth,thesecostarelow.  Thecharacteristicsoftheluxuryhotelgroupmakeitsmanagementandoperationfacenewproblemswhicharenotthesamewithmanyotherindustries.Forexample,howtobalancesupplyanddemandconflictsisaproblem.Alargenumberofroomscannotbesoldwhenroomdemandislow.Whenthedemandforroomsishigh,andbecausetheproductioncapacityisnotfixedenoughtomeetalltherequirements,thepotentialgainsarelost.Atthesametime,thecharacteristicsofhighfixedcostandlowvariablecostprovidethebasisforoperatorstoadoptdifferentiatedpricing.Therefore,luxuryhotelgroupisoneofthebestplacestoapplythetheoryofrevenuemanagementandpractice.  4.2FeaturesandapplicationofrevenuemanagementinSydneyshangri-lahotel  LocatedinthehistoricRocksdistrictofSydney,theSydneyshangri-lahotelisoneofthetophotelsinSydney,with565spaciousroomsandsuites.AlltheroomscanenjoythestunningviewsofSydneyharbour,andtheroomisthelargestonecomparedwithotherluxuryhotelsinSydney.However,theactualoccupancyrateisusuallyonWednesday,ThursdayandSaturday,andtheroomwillhavemanyguestsintheroom,someofthemevenpaytwice.Whileinotherevenings,suchasSunday,theroomoccupancyrateisverylow.Inresponseofthesetwoscenarios,theheadofrevenuemanagerattheshangri-lahotelinSydneyisfacingamajorchallenge.Sheneedsnotonlytokeeptheguestroomfull,buttoprovidetheguestswiththemostreasonablepriceandtowinmoreprofitforthehotel.Shealsoneedstocombinepricingandroomcontroltomaximizebenefits.Intheeveningofhighoccupancyrate,youshouldpayattentionnottoselltheroomearly,butalsoconsiderthelengthoftimeofresidence.Therearemanybusinesstravelerswillingtopayahigherpricebutstayovernight,butthesecustomersusuallydon'tcheckinforafewmorefreenights.OnSunday,hotelrevenuemanagersneedtopreparealotofroomsatalowerpricetoattractenoughcustomers,butalsoneedtoleaveenoughroomsforthosewillingtopaymorefortheirstay.#p#分页标题#e#  4.3ThecomparisonofeffectbeforeandafterusingRevenuemanagementsystemintoshangri-lahotelinSydney.  Inthepast,theshangri-lahotelgroupreliedonalotoftimetocompilestatisticstocounterthesechallenges,Nowtheshangri-lahotelgrouphasfullydevelopeditsownrevenuemanagementsystemandthemostadvancedbookingtechnologyFidelioOpera.SincetheSydneyshangri-lahotelenteredtheAustralianmarketin2003,ithasimproveditsperformanceby17percentthroughtheuseofthegroup'srevenuemanagementadvancedsystems.Throughthemanagementofthepriceandoverbooking,itincreasedthehotel'sturnoverby4%to5%,andbymanagingthecustomerretentiontime,theadditional3%ofthepromotionspacewasobtained.Forhotelsliketheshangri-lahotelinSydney,thereareusuallymultipletargetmarkets,andthepriceelasticityofeachtargetmarketisdifferent,Throughautomaticprocessingofcomputers,hotelrevenuemanagerscandetectsubtlemarketchanges(changesindemandforecasts).Lowerthepriceoftheexistingroomwhenthedemandisinsufficienttoensurethattheroomsarenotavailable.Conversely,whentheactualdemandforhigher-pricedroomsexceedstheforecastdemand,thehotelwillreducethenumberofdiscountedrooms.Therevenuemanagementsystemcaneffectivelyhelpthehoteltoobtainthemaximumrevenue,andsetthebestpriceaccordingtothesupplyanddemandrelationshipofacertainperiod.Revenuemanagementasabusinessstrategyisbasedontheaccuratepredictionofdemand,theproductthroughthecalculationofsystemandcustomerpropercollocation,toeffectivelybalancesupplyanddemandforservices,makethehotelimprovetheutilizationrateofresources,utmosttomaximizerevenue.  5.Thehotelindustryimplementsrevenuemanagementstrategies,especiallysalesandmarketingtechniques酒店业实施收入管理策略,特别是销售和营销技术  5.1Demandforecasting  Demandforecastinghasbecomeanimportantfunctiontorevenuemanagementandthekeytosuccessfactors.Scientificresearchonmarketandcustomersegmentationcanhelphotelcontrolresourcesandincreaserevenue.Onthebasisofmarketsegmentationandguestinformation,itcanaccuratelypredicttheneedsofdifferentguests.Itadoptsdifferentpre-salemethodsandpricedifferentialcontroltoimplementdynamicmanagementandmarginalrevenuemanagementtominimizetheriskofusingresources.Iftheriskofresourceuseisminimized,thenhotelrevenueexpectationscanbepositive.  5.2Gainscontrol  Thekeytorevenuecontrolistodeter{关键词}minepricestrategybasedonmarketdemand,thisincludestryingtoraisepricesinthepeakdemandseasontoincreaserevenueandtotrytoincreaseoccupancyanddecreasepricestoabalanceduringtheslackseason.  (1)Dynamicpricesetting  Thepriceisthemostsensitiveconsumptionfactorofthecustomer,itisthemostdirectmanagerialleverageanditistheprimarymeansforhotelprofitincreaseanddecrease.Nowadaysundertheoversupplyandcompetitiveincentivemarketsituation,almosteveryhoteldevelopstheirpricemanagementfromasinglestaticpricetomultipleandmarketcompetitivenessoptimizationprice.Thedynamicpriceincludestheagreementcompany'sdiscountprice,thetourgroupandthelongstaydiscountroomrate,independenttouristfloatingpriceandsoon.Forhotels,whentheysettingdynamicprices,themostvaluablereferencedataisthesamestarhotelsinthesameregion.  (2)Overbookingcontrol  Duetothedifferencebetweenpre-saleandactualoccupancy,thehotelusuallycarriesoutacertainproportionofoverbookingtoreducethelossofthispre-saleandactualoccupancydifference.Wheateartheproportionofoverbookingisappropriateornot,isdependingoncollaborationbetweenthefrontofficeandtheMarketingDepartment,theanalysisofhistoricaldatatodetermineabasicreasonableprobability.  Thisworkcanbedoneinseveralwaysbelow:  A.Checkthereservation.Someguestsreserveroomsforalongtime,andmaybetheyareunabletoarriveorcancelthetripforavarietyofreasons,butnotallguestswillvoluntarilynotifythehotel.Thefrontofficeneedstocheckwiththeguestsonbeforetheguestsarrive.Oncethechangeismade,thedepartmentwillmakeadjustmentsandinformtherelevantdepartmentstoreorderorselltheroomstootherguests.  B.Increasetheguaranteedbooking.Advancedepositorcreditcardguaranteetopasstheriskontothecustomer,thisisespeciallyimportantduringthepeakofthehotelbusiness,suchasholidaysandmajorlocaleconomicandtradeactivities.StrengthencoordinationwithMarketingDepartmentandstrengthencontroltheoverbookingandreducehotellosses.  (3)Pricedemandcontrolforholidaysandmajorevents  Holidayandmarketeventsareoftenthebesttimeforhotelprofits.Howtotakeadvantageofthistimetoobtainthemaximumbenefitisdecidedbyhotelmanagementandthefrontofficebestperformanceinmanagingtherevenueefficiencyofthesystem.  (4)Managementofteamsalesandsalesagents  Thesalesteamshouldbebasedonmarketchangesofeachstage,mainlyistheaverageoccupancyofthetravelagency'stotalconsumptionandhotelrate.Theaveragepricefluctuationandthelocalmarketeconomicboomindexneedtimelyadjustmentandcontrol.Forthesalesdepartmentsuchasthebookingcenter,theyneedtoanalyzethemarketsituationeveryyearandthenreadjustthepriceforthenewperiod.  (5)Operatingconditioncomparisonandanalysis  ThefrontofficeshouldcomparethevariousoperatingdataofeveryJanuary,includingoccupancyrate,variousrooms,customersegmentation,andallkindsofattachedresourcesales.Thefrontofficeshouldcollectandcomparethevariousoperatingdataeverymonth,includingoccupancyrate,variousrooms,customersegmentation,andallkindsofattachedresourcesales.Thekeypointistocomparewiththepreviousyear'sdata,andthencombinedwiththedataofsimilarcompetitorsinthemarketfordetailedanalysis.Thesevaluablemarketingdataareusedasthebasisforthedecision-makingofthehotelratesinthefrontoffice,andneedtoreporttothehotelmanagementauthorities.  6.Conclusion结论  Today'shotelsalesenvironmentislowsellingprice,perfervidcompetition,complexloyaltyprogramsandrisingcosts,whichhaveneverbeensostressfulforincomemanagers.Formanyhotelgroups,thequestionofhowtooptimizeforeachhotelroomrateremainsatoughproblem.Inthehotelindustry,thereisnodoubtabouttheimportanceofrevenuemanagementandinfact,itsrolehasbeenalmostdeified.Inshort,thepurposeofrevenuemanagementistoprovidethehotelmanagerwithsufficientstrategicchoicetorejectthebusinessthatdoesnotmeettheexpectationsandfinallychoosetheidealbusiness.Nomatterthesize,theconsumptiongroupandthelevelofthehotel,therevenuemanagementisanindispensabletacticalmanagementtoolofthehotel.Thecorrectunderstandingofthetechnologyandreasonableapplicationwillhelpthehoteltomaximizeitsrevenue.  本文转自留学生论文的博客,点击阅读原文查看。

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